Asphalt Rubber Technology Information Center
A Case Study: The Cost Effective Use of Bitumen-Rubber on Municipal Roads in Mbabane, Swaziland
This paper outlines the basis of the decision to use bitumen-rubber single surface treatment as a “holding action” until sufficient funds become available to perform the
recommended rehabilitation of severely deteriorated roads.  The surface treatments performed better...
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AASHTO Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) 1993 Cost Survey
Reports the result of the 1993 survey for CRM hot mix asphalt pavements.... Read More

Asphalt Rubber Approach to Low Cost Low Volume Streets
With the rapid growth of the City of Phoenix, islands of non-paved streets developed causing dust and bottlenecks that had to be paved.  These were low-volume
streets with not willing property owners to pay for the cost of construction.  Alternate pavement designs were...
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Bitumen-Rubber in the United States – Its Origin, Cost-Effectiveness, Durability and New Uses
The origin and history of bitumen-rubber will be presented.  Since it has been used in the U.S. since 1968, we have a 20-year history.  This long period of use has
enabled us to prove that the product is cost effective, even at times on a first-cost basis.  There are also side benefits, such as reducing...
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Cost Analysis Rubber-Modified Asphalt – A Reality-Based Look
The purpose of this paper is to provide clarity on the true costs and true benefits of Rubber-Modified Asphalt (RMA).  To do this, three things will need to be examined:
1. The history of and costs associated with tire disposal;...
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Cost Considerations of Asphalt-Rubber Hot Mix
The concepts presented in this report can be summarized as follows:  1. The difference in cost between a standard asphalt concrete (AC) and asphalt-rubber concrete
(ARC) should result from the difference between the costs and percent binder ...
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Cost Effectiveness of Asphalt-Rubber
Every Engineer, designer, maintainer, and money handler must consider cost.  This should include short and long term investments.  Cost comparisons are included
here to point out the effectiveness of Asphalt-Rubber ...
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Cost Effectiveness of Asphalt-Rubber Surface Treatment on I-91 Springfield-Weathersfield
Test sections using asphalt-rubber as SAMI and SAM.  Conclusions from the study based on annualized cost and quality of performance are that asphalt-rubber
surface treatments and...
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Cost Effectiveness of Rubber and Polymer Modified Asphalt Mixtures as Related to Sustainable Fatigue Performance
Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavements. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for
decades and is considered an integral part of the Superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most   ... Read More

Cost Factors - Asphalt Paving Products with Crumb Rubber Modifier
Presents various rehabilitation systems and case histories where asphalt rubber has been shown to be economical on both first cost and life cycle ... Read More

Economics of Seal Coating
Of course the primary requirement for a seal today, as well as in the past, is to apply one or more successive applications of asphalt binder and cover aggregate to a
surface.  The object is to...
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Federal Highway Administration Programs
FHWA Demonstration Project No. 37 “Discarded Tires in Highway Construction” was initiated in 1976.  Presentations have been made in 35 states and contracts have
been negotiated to construct 43 demonstration...
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Implementation of the 1986 AASHTO Guide at the City and County Levels
Many cities and counties have not yet implemented the 1986 AASHTO guide mostly because of its sophistication and its wide scope.  This paper provides guidelines
and recommendations to narrow the scope of the guide to match the...
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Laboratory Behavior, Performance Prediction, and Cost-Effectiveness of Asphalt-Rubber Concrete in Airport Pavements
A research project was performed which indicated that ground tire rubber added to asphalt concrete significantly improves the material parameters which are generally
used to evaluate an asphalt concrete mix for use in pavement.  The study also indicated ...
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Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Asphalt-Rubber Paving Materials
Life cycle cost analysis is recognized by public agencies as an effective tool to assist in the selection of construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance treatments.  The
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) approach which will ...
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Performance Prediction and Cost-Effectiveness of Asphalt-Rubber Concrete in Airport Pavements
This paper reports on the promising results of a research study conducted to investigate the feasibility of using asphalt-rubber concrete, which contains ground and
recycled tire rubber, as a surface material for airfield pavements at municipal airports.  This research indicated that asphalt-rubber ...
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Proposal for Economic Utilization of Waste Tires for Better Pavements for the City of Houston, Texas
To utilize asphalt-rubber in much higher volumes with higher production schedules thus reducing unit cost.  Also to investigate other concepts of cost reduction, this
would further ...
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The Scrap Tire Problem: A Preliminary Economic Analysis
Economic evaluation of social costs associated with the disposal of waste tires.  Based entirely on the expected cost of tire fires and the health costs associated with
mosquitoes which breed in tires, annual social costs...
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Time Proves Asphalt-Rubber Seals Cost-Effective
From 1970 until present Phoenix has used asphalt-rubber chip seals in a broad spectrum of applications, including: airport runways, heavily traveled streets, for chip
sealing to extend street life and for lining lakes.  Improvements in the asphalt-rubber material, in the installation machinery and methods, and ...
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True Cost Effectiveness of Asphalt-Rubber Paving Systems
The initial development of asphalt-rubber began in the mid 1960’s and which today is being used on a worldwide basis in numerous types of pavement rehabilitation
systems.  The cost of the asphalt-rubber as a binder in either spray applications or hot mixed concrete is 3 to 4 times...
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Use of Asphalt-Rubber on Low-Cost, Low-Volumes Streets: A Review After 13 Years
Asphalt-rubber, a new product developed in 1963, was introduced I the pavement maintenance program of the City of Phoenix in the late 1960s.  In this paper its
performance on the city streets after 13 years is reviewed.  A qualitative and economic...
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